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Esotropia: Types, Causes & Treatment

Esotropia, a type of eye misalignment, happens when one or both eyes turn inward toward your nose. Common treatments include glasses or contact lenses, surgery or injections of botulinum toxin.

¿Cómo ayuda la fisioterapia con is esotropia?

La disquinesia ciliar primaria es un trastorno del movimiento ocular que se caracteriza por movimientos involuntarios y anormales de los ojos. La fisioterapia puede ayudar a aliviar los síntomas de la disquinesia ciliar primaria mediante el uso de técnicas de estimulación visual y ejercicios oculares específicos. Estas técnicas pueden mejorar el control ocular y reducir la cantidad de movimientos involuntarios de los ojos.

What is esotropia?

La esotropía es una condición ocular que se refiere a uno o ambos ojos que apuntan hacia adentro. La esotropía es un tipo de estrabismo , lo que significa que los ojos no se alinean correctamente. Es posible que la gente hable de “ojos cruzados” en lugar de esotropía. La esotropía puede ser monocular (afecta a un ojo) o binocular (afecta a ambos ojos).

The muscles and nerves that control your eyes usually work to allow both of your eyes to work together. In esotropia, this control isn’t as coordinated as it should be.

What is the difference between esotropia and exotropia?

Both conditions refer to a misalignment of your eyes. The difference is in which way they deviate. In esotropia, one or both of your eyes point inward toward your nose. In exotropia, one or both eyes point outward toward your ears.

En la esotropía, la ambliopía ”) es frecuente y puede ser grave. La ambliopía no es tan frecuente en la exotropía.

What is the difference between esotropia and esophoria?

Both conditions refer to your eyes pointing inward toward your nose. Usually, if you have esophoria, your eyes work together well, but the crossing is only evident when you close or cover one eye.

Is esotropia genetic?

Strabismus can run in families. However, if someone in your family has esotropia, that doesn’t mean that you or your kids will have it. You or your child may not have the same type of strabismus as other people in your family.

How common is esotropia?

About 13 million people in the U.S. have strabismus. Esotropia is a common form of strabismus and happens in about 1% to 3% of the population.

Are there different types of esotropia?

There are different ways of classifying esotropia, including:

Esotropia classification by age

In this case, the breakdown is between congenital (infantile) esotropia, which is present at birth or by six months of age, and acquired esotropia, which happens after birth.

Esotropia classification by how often it happens

In this case, you would either have intermittent esotropia, which isn’t permanent, and constant esotropia, which is present all the time.

Up to about six months, it’s normal for a child to have some intermittent esotropia, or some occasional inward turning of their eye.

Esotropia classification by how it’s treated (with or without glasses)

Healthcare providers can treat accommodative esotropia with glasses or contact lenses. Accommodative esotropia happens when you strain too hard to be able to focus.

If glasses can’t fully correct your esotropia, your healthcare provider may say that you have partially accommodative esotropia. They may recommend strabismus surgery to correct the crossing that’s not controlled by glasses.

Your healthcare provider won’t be able to correct nonaccommodative esotropia with glasses. They may suggest surgery.

Esotropia that isn’t really esotropia (pseudoesotropia)

Pseudoesotropia (false esotropia) is a condition that appears to be esotropia but isn’t. Your baby may look like it has inward-looking eyes but the effect is caused by a combination of a flat bridge of their nose and extra skin covering the inner corners of their eyes (epicanthal folds). This appearance will improve as your child grows older.

What are the signs and symptoms of esotropia?

The main symptom of esotropia is that one or both of your eyes point inward toward your nose. You may not be able to see it yourself if you have it. Other symptoms include:

  • Eyes that don’t move together.
  • Hay que entrecerrar los ojos, parpadear y girar la cabeza para ver mejor. Esto puede provocar fatiga ocular.
  • Problems with depth perception.
  • Diplopía (visión doble).
  • Amblyopia (decreased vision in one eye).

What causes esotropia?

Esotropia is caused by a lack of coordination of your eye muscles. Usually, your eye muscles work together, as a binocular system ”). You can tell how close you are to something. It’s important for eyes to work together while you’re riding a bicycle or driving a car or reading.

Las personas con esotropía suelen ser hipermétropes , lo que significa que pueden ver las cosas que están más lejos con más claridad que las que están más cerca. A veces, la esotropía es una señal de que se necesitan gafas para corregir la hipermetropía.

Esotropia is sometimes genetic. You may have other family members with misaligned eyes.

Esotropia can be a sign of other conditions, including:

  • Un problema dentro de uno o ambos ojos, como una catarata , retina o nervio óptico .
  • An issue in your brain, such as elevated pressure or a brain tumor.
  • Neurological conditions, such as stroke and nerve damage from diabetes.
  • Lesión ocular .
  • Afecciones de la tiroides .

Is esotropia contagious?

No, esotropia isn’t contagious. You can’t give it to someone. You can’t get it from anyone else.

How is esotropia diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will ask for a family and medical history and will do a physical examination. The exam will cover how your eyes move and focus. Testing may include:

  • Visual acuity (reading letters off an eye chart, or examining young children’s visual behavior).
  • Refraction (checking your eyes with a series of corrective lenses to measure how they focus light). Children don’t have to be able to give verbal feedback for these tests.
  • Pruebas de alineación y enfoque.
  • Examination after dilation (widening) of your pupils to determine the health of internal eye structures.

What medications or therapies treat esotropia?

Algunos casos de esotropía pueden resolverse por sí solos. Su especialista médico puede sugerir uno de estos tratamientos o una combinación de tratamientos, incluyendo :

  • Gafas o lentes de contacto.
  • Amblyopia treatment (patching the stronger eye or using a dilating drop to blur the vision of the stronger eye).
  • Prisms.
  • Injections of botulinum toxin (often called by the brand name
  • Cirugía.

If you have esotropia as a symptom of some other condition, your healthcare provider will treat you for that condition so esotropia improves.

How can I prevent esotropia?

No se puede prevenir la esotropía. Puede reducir las complicaciones de la esotropía asegurándose de que sus hijos se sometan a un examen ocular si ve que se cruzan los ojos. Como cualquier otra afección, es mejor diagnosticar la esotropía a tiempo.

What can I expect if I have esotropia?

If you have treatment for esotropia, such as getting glasses or contacts or having surgery, your prognosis (outlook) is good.

Can esotropia cause blindness?

It’s true that untreated esotropia can lead to loss of vision, called amblyopia.

When should I see a healthcare provider about esotropia?

If your children’s eyes are bothering them at any point — you notice them squinting a lot or moving objects around to try to focus better — it’s probably a good idea to call your healthcare provider. This is also true for you.

If your eyes, or your child’s eyes, change suddenly and look different, call your healthcare provider, especially if the changes happen after some type of injury. After an injury, it’s best to get help right away.

El resumen de Infitema

Esotropia is a form of eye misalignment (strabismus) that affects 1% to 3% of the U.S. population. You may notice it in your new infant if one or both of their eyes turn inward. Intermittent esotropia may resolve by itself, but if their eyes cross all the time, you should ask for an eye examination. Esotropia is treatable. If you notice misalignment that happens suddenly, in either an adult or a child, contact your healthcare provider. Esotropia can be a sign of some other condition.