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Prognathism: Definition, Causes & Treatment

Prognathism is a protrusion of your upper jaw, lower jaw or both. This condition may be inherited, or it could be caused by an underlying health condition. Treatment involves a combination of corrective jaw surgery and orthodontics.

¿Cómo ayuda la fisioterapia con prognathism?

La fisioterapia puede ayudar al paciente a fortalecer los músculos del cuello y la espalda, lo que ayuda a estabilizar la cabeza y el cuello. También pueden hacer ejercicios para mejorar el equilibrio y la coordinación, lo que puede ayudar a aliviar el vértigo.

Visión general

Prognathism is a protrusion of the lower jaw.

What is prognathism?

Prognathism is when your jaw protrudes, or juts out. This typically involves your lower jaw. Prognathism is a congenital condition. This means that people are born with it. But while symptoms may be present at birth, they can also emerge later in life due to dental injuries (such as blunt force trauma to your mouth) or childhood habits (like thumb sucking).

What does prognathism look like?

There are different types of prognathism, including:

  • Prognatismo mandibular.Tu mandíbula inferior sobresale más que la superior.
  • Prognatismo maxilar.Su mandíbula superior sobresale más de lo debido. El prognatismo maxilar se llama a veces prognatismo alveolar.
  • Prognatismo bimaxilar.Tanto la mandíbula superior como la inferior sobresalen.

Prognathism can range from mild to severe. Some cases are more noticeable than others and can significantly impact your quality of life.

Who does prognathism affect?

Prognathism affects both men and women, though it’s slightly more common in men.

How common is prognathism?

Prognathism affects about 0.5% to 2.0% of children and 2.0% to 4.0% of adults.

How does prognathism affect my health?

Una mandíbula que sobresale puede causar maloclusión (cuando los dientes no encajan correctamente). La maloclusión puede causar una serie de problemas de salud, como el desgaste dental, dificultades para masticar y problemas de habla.

Además, los dientes desalineados son más difíciles de cepillar y utilizar el hilo dental. Como resultado, muchas personas con prognatismo tienen un mayor riesgo de sufrir caries ((1376)caries ) y enfermedades de las encías .

What are the symptoms of prognathism?

People with prognathic jaw can develop a wide range of symptoms, depending on the type and severity of their condition. Common prognathism symptoms include:

What causes prognathism?

Simply stated, prognathism happens when your facial bones grow abnormally. There can be several reasons why this happens. In many cases, people simply inherit a larger jaw. In other words, the condition is passed down to children by parents and isn’t linked to any underlying medical conditions. However, in some instances, prognathism may be a symptom of certain conditions or syndromes, such as:

  • Acromegalia . Esta condición de la glándula pituitaria ocurre cuando su cuerpo produce demasiada hormona de crecimiento. Puede dar lugar a un agrandamiento de los tejidos, como una mandíbula demasiado grande.
  • Síndrome de Crouzon . Se trata de un síndrome genético que hace que las costuras del cráneo se fusionen de forma anormal. Esto puede provocar prognatismo u otras irregularidades en la cabeza y la cara.
  • Síndrome del nevo basocelular. Esta enfermedad hereditaria provoca un desarrollo facial anormal. En algunos casos, esto incluye prognatismo.
  • Acrodisostosis. Esta enfermedad afecta al crecimiento de los huesos. Las personas con acrodisostosis suelen tener un maxilar superior pequeño, lo que hace que el maxilar inferior parezca más grande en comparación. Otros síntomas de la acrodisostosis son la nariz corta y los brazos y piernas cortos.
  • Síndrome de Down . Dado que las personas con síndrome de Down tienen un cromosoma adicional que afecta al desarrollo, en algunos casos puede producirse un crecimiento excesivo de la mandíbula.

How is prognathism diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will perform a comprehensive physical examination and ask questions about your symptoms and family history. They may also take:

  • Radiografías dentales , que muestran los dientes y el hueso de la mandíbula que los sostiene.
  • Radiografía de cráneo (radiografía cefalométrica) , que muestra una vista lateral de la cara, incluyendo las articulaciones de la mandíbula y la oclusión (cómo encajan los dientes).
  • Impresiones dentales , que se utilizan para crear un modelo de sus dientes.

How is prognathism treated?

El tratamiento del prognatismo depende de la gravedad del problema. En general, los problemas esqueléticos como el prognatismo requieren cirugía. Algunos casos leves pueden tratarse con ortodoncia, como los aparatos . En la mayoría de los casos se recomienda una combinación de cirugía y ortodoncia.

Orthognathic surgery

Also called corrective jaw surgery, orthognathic surgery involves repositioning your jaw bones to improve health, function and appearance. Once your orofacial bones are positioned properly, your teeth will fit together better as well.

Orthodontic treatment

Orthognathic surgery is usually performed in conjunction with braces or clear aligners. In many cases, you’ll begin treatment with braces and undergo jaw surgery later on, once your teeth are in better alignment. But treatment is different for everyone. Your healthcare provider can tell you what to expect in your unique situation.

Can you fix prognathism without surgery?

In very mild cases, prognathism may be corrected with orthodontics alone, but this isn’t the norm. Braces can move teeth, but they can’t move your facial bones. So, if skeletal abnormalities are moderate or severe, then you’ll likely need surgery as part of your treatment.

How long does it take to recover from orthognathic surgery?

All in all, it takes about nine to 12 months to recover from orthognathic surgery. Your healthcare provider will give you detailed instructions to follow during this time, including dietary guidelines. Though full recovery takes up to one year, you’ll be able to return to work, school and normal routines in about two to three weeks.

What are the risks of orthognathic surgery?

As with any surgical procedure, there are risks associated with orthognathic surgery. Possible complications include:

  • Postoperative infection.
  • Daño a los nervios.
  • Dolor de mandíbula.
  • Jaw fracture.
  • Bite problems.

Slight relapse of jaw position.

Can I prevent prognathism?

Because prognathism is a congenital condition (present at birth), there’s nothing you can do to prevent it from happening. If you’re planning on having children and you want to know if there’s a chance of passing a genetic condition to them, you can schedule an appointment with a genetic counselor.

What can I expect if I have prognathism?

If you have prognathic jaw, your healthcare provider will discuss your treatment options with you in detail. Chances are, you’ll need surgery to correct the issue.

¿Cuándo debo acudir a mi médico?

If you have a protruding jaw, talk to your healthcare provider. They can help determine if prognathism is simply a cosmetic issue or if it’s interfering with your health and function. If your condition causes serious issues — such as difficulty chewing, speaking or breathing — call your healthcare provider right away.

El resumen de Infitema

Prognathism can have a significant impact on your dental function and overall health. People with prognathic jaws may also feel embarrassed or self-conscious about their appearance. Orthognathic surgery can reduce dental wear and tear, improve your chewing function and enhance your facial features. If you think you might have prognathism, talk to your healthcare provider. They can find a solution to meet your needs.